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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 53-59

Spectrum of neurological complications of pregnancy on magnetic resonance imaging

1 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, SKIMS, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India
2 Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, GMC, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Suhail Rafiq
Department of Radiodiagnosis, GMC, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mtsm.mtsm_9_21

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Introduction: Catastrophic neurological decline, although exceedingly rare, takes a huge toll on pregnant population. In view of varied symptomatology and risks to the fetus, diagnosis and management of the neurological disorders in pregnancy is always a challenging task. The evaluation and management should be performed in a stepwise fashion and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Radiological imaging, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has revolutionized the diagnosis of these disorders, thereby exacerbating maternal and fetal outcome. Aim: The present study was conducted with the aim to characterize some of the significant neurological disorders complicating pregnancy and puerperium and to study the role of imaging, especially MRI, in differentiation and exclusion of various neurologic conditions, which helps an obstetrician to point to a specific diagnosis and management. Materials and Methods: Our study was an observational study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in collaboration with the Department of Radiodiagnosis of GMC, Srinagar, from June 2018 to January 2020. The images were obtained with MRI and subjected for radiological interpretation. Results: A total of 750 patients were included in the study out of which 25 patients had neurological complications. Out of 25 patients, 13 were in the antenatal period and 12 were in the puerperium. There were 10 (40.0%) cases of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), 6 (24%) cases of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), 3 (12.0%) cases of embolic infarcts, 2 (8.0%) cases of status epilepticus, 2 (8.0%) cases of pituitary apoplexy, 1 (4.0%) case of Wernicke encephalopathy, and 1 (4.0%) case of metastasis to brain (choriocarcinoma). Conclusion: Diagnosis of neurological complications of pregnancy and postpartum plays a crucial role in reducing fetomaternal morbidity and mortality. MRI stands above all imaging modalities in early diagnosis of these neurological complications, simultaneously taking care of fetal safety as well. The most common neurological complications that cause increased maternal mortality are PRES and CVT. Hence, early imaging can help in early and appropriate management of serious pregnancy-related neurological catastrophes.

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