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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 112-114

Early marriage causes decreased growth and development in children under the age of three


1 Department of Public Health, Magister Program, Institut Kesehatan Medistra, Lubuk Pakam, Indonesia
2 Department of Midwifery, Undergraduate Program, Institut Kesehatan Medistra, Lubuk Pakam, Indonesia
3 Department of Midwifey, Diploma Program, Institut Kesehatan Medistra, Lubuk Pakam, Indonesia

Date of Submission15-Jan-2022
Date of Decision20-Jan-2022
Date of Acceptance22-Jan-2022
Date of Web Publication06-Oct-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Achmad Rifai
Jl. Sudirman No. 38, Petapahan, Kec. Lubuk Pakam, Kabupaten Deli Serdang, Lubuk Pakam 20512, Sumatera Utara
Indonesia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mtsm.mtsm_2_22

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  Abstract 


Introduction: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between early marriage and child development. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of mothers with children <3 years old. The subjects of this study are mothers with children aged 3–36 months, who know their age at first marriage, are not currently divorced, and are willing to engage in the study. Results: There is a relationship between early marriage and impaired child growth and development. Conclusions: It was concluded that early marriage affects the growth and development of children <3 years old. Thus, the government or society needs to make efforts to prevent early marriage through the right approach in Indonesia.

Keywords: Children, development, growth, marriage, mother


How to cite this article:
Rifai A, Juliandi J, Saputri IN, Satria B, Wulan S, Simarmata D. Early marriage causes decreased growth and development in children under the age of three. Matrix Sci Med 2022;6:112-4

How to cite this URL:
Rifai A, Juliandi J, Saputri IN, Satria B, Wulan S, Simarmata D. Early marriage causes decreased growth and development in children under the age of three. Matrix Sci Med [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Dec 1];6:112-4. Available from: https://www.matrixscimed.org/text.asp?2022/6/4/112/358002




  Introduction Top


Early marriage is defined as marriage before reaching the legal marriage age of 18 years. Early marriage is not only a social issue but also a public health one. Men and women have equal chances of marrying young, but women do it more frequently. Men account for only one-sixth of all early marriages. Every year, one in every five women marries before the age of 18 years. While this is a terrible custom, its prevalence varies greatly across the country. This is a more prevalent occurrence in developing countries than in developed countries.[1],[2] In Indonesia, legal rules and the religious concept of marriage continue to push women into early marriage.[3] There is even a widespread belief that early marriage is advantageous.[4] Furthermore, the pandemic was proven to be a motivating force behind early marriage.[5]

Because the consequences are severe, the United Nations has made the abolition of early marriage a sustainable development goal. This prevents the bride and groom from pursuing higher education, more advanced skills, personal growth, and mobility.[6],[7] It also allows access to reproductive issues and birth defects.[8] Women who marry at a young age utilize health-care facilities much less than women who marry later in life.[9] This group poses a risk of premature birth and mortality to newborns.[10] There is a substantial association between this marriage and the occurrence of stunting and malnutrition in children under the age of five.[11]

Objective

There is few research on the impact of early marriage that targets specific groups in Indonesian society. As a result, the purpose of this study is to look into the relationship between early marriage and child development.


  Materials and Methods Top


Subjects

The subjects of this study are mothers with children aged 3–36 months, who know their age at first marriage, are not currently divorced, and are willing to engage in the study. All subjects will be divided into two groups: moms who have married over the age of 18 and mothers who have married under the age of 18.

Sampling size and technique

This study's participants were moms with children aged 3–36 months. The Slovin's formula is used to calculate the sample size, which is a minimum of 100 samples. Using an accidental sampling strategy.

Analysis of child growth

Children's growth is measured by determining the weight and height according to the child's age. If the weight and height do not match the child's age, it will be categorized in the group of child growth disorders.

Analysis of child development

Fine motor, gross motor, language, and independence are all aspects of a child's development that are assessed. Child development is assessed using a questionnaire with 10 yes or no questions. If 9–10 questions are answered with a yes, the child is considered to be developing normally. If a child replies yes to 9 questions, he or she is classified as having abnormal development.

Statistical analysis

All data are presented in frequency and percentage. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test. The analysis was carried out using the SPSS (IBM, New York, United States) for Windows version 19 software. The P value was declared significant if it was <0.05. In addition, the odds ratio calculation is also carried out.


  Observations Top


[Table 1] shows the educational qualities of the subjects. High school education is the most common among those who have been married for more than 18 years. Meanwhile, the most common level of education among 18-year-old marriages is junior high school. In the marriage group of <18 years, the largest frequency of education is that all of them are not working for the task of moms. There are still mothers who work in various industries in groups with marriages over 18 years old.
Table 1: The level of education in all subjects

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[Table 2] depicts the association between marital age and child development. Marriage age and child growth have a strong link (P < 0.05). Moms who marry before the age of 18 years have a 47.57 times greater chance of having children with developmental abnormalities than mothers who marry after the age of 18. In addition, maternal age at marriage and child development had a significant link (P < 0.05). Moms who marry before the age of 18 years are 39.60 times more likely to have a child with a developmental problem than mothers who marry after the age of 18.
Table 2: The level of children growth and development

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  Discussion Top


This study involved 130 subjects of mothers who have children aged 3–36 months. After being categorized based on the age of marriage, there were 16 subjects with marriages <18 years and 114 subjects with marriages >18 years. In the marriage group <18 years, most of them have junior high school education and do not work. This is consistent with the previous findings that education level is associated with early marriage. Women who only have primary education are more likely to have primary marriages than those with higher education.[12],[13],[14] Higher levels of education provide an understanding of reproduction, maternal health, and marital health. In addition, strengthening women through employment opportunities also prevents early marriage.[15],[16],[17] Other studies reveal that efforts to prevent early marriage include efforts to have their own income and opportunities for women.[2]

According to the findings of this study, early marriage can have an impact on the growth and development of children who are born. Mothers who marry before the age of 18 are 47.57 times more likely to have a child with a development abnormality than those who marry after the age of 18. There is an elevated risk of 39.60 for development. This demonstrates that early marriage has a biological impact on the lives of children. Early marriage is linked to malnutrition by mechanisms such as poor maternal nutritional status, low education, lack of access to health care, insufficient feeding, and insufficient living conditions.[18] This study's findings are consistent with the earlier research.[19]


  Conclusions Top


It was concluded that early marriage affects the growth and development of children <3 years old. Thus, the government or society needs to make efforts to prevent early marriage through the right approach in Indonesia.

Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge all midwifery and government officers from the location of this study.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Abera M, Nega A, Tefera Y, Gelagay AA. Early marriage and women's empowerment: The case of child-brides in Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. BMC Int Health Hum Rights 2020;20:30.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Malhotra A, Elnakib S. 20 Years of the evidence base on what works to prevent child marriage: A systematic review. J Adolesc Health 2021;68:847-62.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Rumble L, Peterman A, Irdiana N, Triyana M, Minnick E. An empirical exploration of female child marriage determinants in Indonesia. BMC Public Health 2018;18:407.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Wibowo HR, Ratnaningsih M, Goodwin NJ, Ulum DF, Minnick E. One household, two worlds: Differences of perception towards child marriage among adolescent children and adults in Indonesia. Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021;8:100103.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Rahiem MD. COVID-19 and the surge of child marriages: A phenomenon in nusa tenggara barat, Indonesia. Child Abuse Negl 2021;118:105168.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Nasrullah M, Muazzam S, Bhutta ZA, Raj A. Girl child marriage and its effect on fertility in Pakistan: Findings from Pakistan demographic and health survey, 2006-2007. Matern Child Health J 2014;18:534-43.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Raj A, Saggurti N, Balaiah D, Silverman JG. Prevalence of child marriage and its effect on fertility and fertility-control outcomes of young women in India: A cross-sectional, observational study. Lancet 2009;373:1883-9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Delprato M, Akyeampong K, Sabates R. On the impact of early marriage on schooling outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southwest Asia. Int J Educ Dev 2015;44:42-55.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Paul P, Chouhan P. Association between child marriage and utilization of maternal health care services in India: Evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Midwifery 2019;75:66-71.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Efevbera Y, Bhabha J, Farmer PE, Fink G. Girl child marriage as a risk factor for early childhood development and stunting. Soc Sci Med 2017;185:91-101.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Paul P, Chouhan P, Zaveri A. Impact of child marriage on nutritional status and anaemia of children under 5 years of age: Empirical evidence from India. Public Health 2019;177:95-101.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Biswas RK, Khan JR, Kabir E. Trend of child marriage in Bangladesh: A reflection on significant socioeconomic factors. Child Youth Serv Rev 2019;104:104382.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Bezie M, Addisu D. Determinants of early marriage among married women in injibara town, north West Ethiopia: Community-based cross-sectional study. BMC Womens Health 2019;19:134.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Wodon Q, Nguyen MC, Tsimpo C. Child marriage, education, and agency in Uganda Fem. Econ 2015;22:54-79.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Porter E. Rethinking women's empowerment. J Peace Build Dev 2013;8:1-14.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Mim SA. Effects of child marriage on girls' education and empowerment. J Educ Learn 2017;11:9.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Duflo E. Women empowerment and economic development. J Econ Lit 2012;50:1051-79.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Nguyen PH, Scott S, Neupane S, Tran LM, Menon P. Social, biological, and programmatic factors linking adolescent pregnancy and early childhood undernutrition: A path analysis of India's 2016 national family and health survey. Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2019;3:463-73.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Pangaribuan IK, Sari I, Simbolon M, Manurung B, Ramuni K. Relationship between early marriage and teenager pregnancy to stunting in toddler at Bangun Rejo village, Tanjung Morawa district, Tanjung Morawa, Deli Serdang 2019. Enferm Clin 2019;30 Suppl 5:88-91.  Back to cited text no. 19
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

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Introduction
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